Technology Transfer

Stories related to NOAA technology transfer broadly.

Public-private research partnerships are fueling NOAA innovation

A record number of NOAA Cooperative Research and Development Agreements in 2021 has generated scientific and economic benefits Research partnerships are increasingly important as scientists work to address complex global problems like coastal resilience, food security, and climate change. Public-private partnerships, in particular, are vital for bringing private sector innovation and agility into NOAA’s research and development efforts. One of the key tools in NOAA’s partnership toolkit is the CRADA, or Cooperative Research and Development Agreement.  A CRADA is a formal agreement that allows federal and non-federal partners to do collaborative research and further develop new science into commercially-available products. CRADAs connect NOAA Laboratories or Science Centers with private U.S. companies, universities, and other entities, creating scientific partnerships across NOAA’s mission areas. CRADAs are valuable because they allow NOAA and non-federal partners to share ideas, technical expertise, facilities, and other research materials. The NOAA Technology Partnerships Office (TPO) is responsible for managing all of NOAA’s CRADAs. During Fiscal Year 2021, TPO initiated 18 new CRADAs, which is the highest number of these agreements ever to be started in one year at NOAA. This represents a 28% increase in the total number of new CRADAs from the previous fiscal year. Furthermore, NOAA and its research partners benefitted from a total of 57 active CRADAs this year, representing an increase of 24% from 2020. The number of CRADAs at NOAA is increasing as more federal researchers and non-federal partners see the value of existing public-private research and development efforts. Collaborations between NOAA and private-sector innovators accelerate research and development that supports both NOAA’s operations and commercialization within the private sector. This is important because more people can benefit from cutting-edge scientific discoveries and inventions when they are available on the commercial market. One example of an ongoing CRADA collaboration is NOAA’s partnership with U.S. biotechnology company, Prospective Research, Inc. NOAA researchers developed a probiotic to prevent disease in oysters and then began a public-private partnership with Prospective Research to further develop and test a freeze-dried version of the formula. The new shelf-stable probiotic has been shown to increase the survival rate of oyster larvae by 20-30% and is expected to be commercially available in 2022. The probiotic has the potential to increase sustainable aquaculture production worldwide. Another partnership between NOAA and the U.S. business, Saildrone, has simultaneously increased NOAA’s capacity to conduct innovative research and provide high-quality climate services, while also directly benefiting Saildrone and the U.S economy, more broadly. NOAA and Saildrone entered into a CRADA to explore how the company’s ocean drone technology could be further developed and strategically used to collect environmental data. Saildrone’s products have since been modified to support diverse NOAA research projects in the Arctic, across fisheries, around Antarctica, and even in the eye of a hurricane. The hurricane-equipped Saildrone Explorer was recently named one of the 100 Greatest Innovations of 2021. Video footage from on board Saildrone 1045 and animation showing location in Hurricane Sam on Sept. 30, 2021. As a result of this fruitful research partnership, NOAA scientists have been able to use the newly-collected data to improve storm forecasts, fisheries management, and climate services, while Saildrone has enjoyed a significant boom in business. According to a 2019 economic valuation study, during the three years after the 2014 CRADA with NOAA was established, Saildrone expanded their workforce from eight to over 100 employees and secured over $95 million in third-party investments into their technology. This influx of interest and sales can be partially attributed to the perceived scientific rigor associated with NOAA’s involvement in Saildrone’s product development. The economic benefits of Saildrone’s technology continue to increase– in October 2021, Saildrone announced the close of its $100 million Series C funding round. The company’s continued growth and success is creating jobs in several industries and is a significant asset for U.S. economies, especially in areas where Saildrones are created and deployed. While the NOAA-Saildrone partnership has been particularly successful, the cumulative impact of more than 50 active NOAA CRADAs underway cannot be overstated from either a scientific or an economic perspective. The collaborations increase NOAA’s capacity to do scientific research, while also stimulating technological innovation and generating broad economic value for the U.S. economy, the global New Blue Economy, and individual U.S. businesses. This economic impact was particularly important during the global COVID pandemic, so it is especially notable that NOAA reached its highest-ever annual number of new CRADAs during Fiscal Year 2021. Over the next year, TPO hopes to continue to expand NOAA’s use of CRADAs as a way to create partnerships. TPO is working with NOAA scientists and engineers to help them evaluate how a CRADA or other type of research partnership can most effectively support their research objectives. TPO also serves as the lead of the Partnerships Working Group under the Science and Technology Synergy Committee of the NOAA Science Council. TPO will continue to highlight the many ways that public-private partnerships support NOAA’s mission and stimulate innovation of new products bound for the commercial market. As scientific research is called upon to inform solutions for some of society’s most pressing challenges, partnerships are essential and CRADAs unlock enormous potential for collaborative problem-solving and innovation.

Exploring the Pacific Arctic Seasonal Ice Zone With Saildrone USVs

Exploring the Pacific Arctic Seasonal Ice Zone With Saildrone USVs More high-quality, in situ observations of essential marine variables are needed over the seasonal ice zone to better understand Arctic (or Antarctic) weather, climate, and ecosystems. To better assess the potential for arrays of uncrewed surface vehicles (USVs) to provide such observations, five wind-driven and solar-powered saildrones were sailed into the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas following the 2019 seasonal retreat of sea ice. They were equipped to observe the surface oceanic and atmospheric variables required to estimate air-sea fluxes of heat, momentum and carbon dioxide. Some of these variables were made available to weather forecast centers in real time. Our objective here is to analyze the effectiveness of existing remote ice navigation products and highlight the challenges and opportunities for improving remote ice navigation strategies with USVs. We examine the sources of navigational sea-ice distribution information based on post-mission tabulation of the sea-ice conditions encountered by the vehicles. The satellite-based ice-concentration analyses consulted during the mission exhibited large disagreements when the sea ice was retreating fastest (e.g., the 10% concentration contours differed between analyses by up to ∼175 km). Attempts to use saildrone observations to detect the ice edge revealed that in situ temperature and salinity measurements varied sufficiently in ice bands and open water that it is difficult to use these variables alone as a reliable ice-edge indicator. Devising robust strategies for remote ice zone navigation may depend on developing the capability to recognize sea ice and initiate navigational maneuvers with cameras and processing capability onboard the vehicles. View/Download Paper Andrew M. Chiodi, Chidong Zhang, Edward D. Cokelet, Qiong Yang, Calvin W. Mordy, Chelle L. Gentemann, Jessica N. Cross, Noah Lawrence-Slavas, Christian Meinig, Michael Steele, Don E. Harrison, Phyllis J. Stabeno, Heather M. Tabisola, Dongxiao Zhang, Eugene F. Burger, Kevin M. O’Brien and Muyin Wang

Small Company Thrives on Commercialization of NOAA’s Miniaturized Particle Spectrometer

POPS is a low-cost, high-sensitivity alternative to traditional aerosol measurement technologies. Story written by Miguel Aristu For many people, hiking is a peaceful escape from everyday stressors. For Dr. Ping Chen, CEO of Handix Scientific Inc., hiking was a starting point of his success. In 2015, he met NOAA inventor and research physicist, Dr. Ru-Shan Gao, on a trail in Boulder, Colorado. As they walked, Gao proudly spoke about NOAA’s recently-developed Portable Optical Particle Spectrometer (POPS) for aerosol measurement. Chen immediately realized the technology’s tremendous potential and expressed interest in licensing and commercializing the technology with a firm belief that POPS was going to be a commercial success. Indeed, with over 200 units of POPS sold across the world to date, it appears that Chen’s premonition became a reality. His new company has since grown from one to twelve full-time employees and Chen expects the demand for POPS to increase in the near future as his team actively explores new markets. Close-up image of POPS components. (Photo by Derek Parks, NOAA) Challenge – Why is aerosol measurement important?  Atmospheric aerosols are microscopic solid or liquid particles that are suspended in the air, such as dust, mists, or smoke. These particles, while tiny, have major impacts on the environment, especially on weather, climate, and air quality. For example, aerosols can either scatter or absorb sunlight to produce a cooling or warming effect on the planet’s climate. Aerosols can also affect cloud formation, which is important for regulating Earth’s energy balance and the hydrological cycle. Furthermore, aerosols serve as active sites for surface chemical reactions that create ozone, which poses a threat to public health. An accurate assessment of aerosol concentration and size distribution in the atmosphere is fundamental for understanding the environmental impacts of aerosols; however, most atmospheric measurements are conducted in situations where using traditional, bulky spectrometers is quite a challenge, such as on airplanes, balloons, and small drones. The need for miniaturized spectrometer technology was very clear, and POPS seemed to be the answer. Indeed, Dr. Ru-Shan Gao, a research physicist at NOAA’s Chemical Sciences Laboratory (CSL), was working on a very long NASA Global Hawk flight when the POPS idea first came to his mind. During the flight, scientists controlled the unmanned aircraft on its mission to collect high-altitude, long-duration atmospheric data. “We were sitting at the hangar watching atmospheric data coming in for 24-hour flights, and we started wondering what we could do to make the Global Hawk more powerful. That was the starting point for our POPS research,” explained Gao. The map shows the monthly average aerosol concentration around the globe. (Image by NOAA NESDIS) Innovative Solution – Miniaturized research-grade aerosol spectrometers POPS is a compact, low-cost, high-sensitivity sensor that enables robust and reliable atmospheric measurements for air quality monitoring. POPS uses a laser to measure and count aerosol particles with diameters ranging from 140 nanometers to 2.5 micrometers. In contrast to conventional particle spectrometers, POPS is particularly suitable for use in drone and balloon missions at a wide range of altitudes from the Earth’s surface to the stratosphere. Gao’s colleagues consider him to be a master craftsman who is able to create clever one-of-a-kind scientific devices for field measurement. Gao explained that “The driving force behind the POPS invention was to develop an aerosol instrument that was small, light, and relatively inexpensive, yet sensitive and robust enough for science-quality atmospheric measurements.” He recognized that the biggest challenge would be to make the technology “miniaturized and cheap enough to become an alternative to already existing spectrometers.” 3D-printing was the ideal solution. The technology enabled Gao to shrink POPS to the size and weight of a lunch-box, simplify the manufacturing process, and cut materials costs down to $2,500. As a result, POPS are one tenth the size and one fifth the cost of traditional comparable instruments. First, second, and third generation prototypes (left to right) were developed in 2012 and 2013.   The result of the 2013 NOAA OAR Special Early-Stage Experimental or Development (SEED) grant is pictured furthest right. (Photo by Ru-Shan Gao, NOAA) The Role of Technology Transfer – Handix Scientific thrives on POPS commercialization Technology partnerships allow private companies to grow and spearhead research and innovation, while also ensuring that technology developed using federal funding fulfills public and private needs. These partnerships are a win-win for both parties involved: private companies commercialize and manufacture new products, while federal labs use the resulting products to support their missions. When the news of POPS spread, Gao was contacted by a number of companies and individuals who were eager to commercialize the invention. Although Gao’s team was convinced of POPS’s commercialization potential from the very beginning, they faced a challenge. He explained, “As scientists and engineers, we had neither the ability nor the knowledge required to deal with the legal details, so we decided to reach out to Derek Parks, deputy director of NOAA’s Technology Partnerships Office.” The team brought the invention to the Technology Partnerships Office in March 2015 and made POPS immediately available for licensing. When Dr. Ping Chen heard about this innovative technology, he realized its tremendous potential and decided to license and commercialize the technology. Chen credited POPS with “Opening the door to new measurement platforms, such as drones and radiosonde balloons, that were not accessible before.” By July 2015, NOAA had negotiated the POPS license agreement with Handix Scientific. “Thanks to the Technology Partnerships Office, the entire technology transfer was rapid and painless,” declared Gao. Chen shared that to this day, his company keeps in constant communication with Gao’s research group for further opportunities, and encouraged other companies to engage with NOAA’s Technology Transfer Program. A small company Handix Scientific improved and commercialized POPS. (Photo by Handix Scientific) Defining Success – Economic impacts on Handix Scientific  The economic impact to Handix Scientific has been significant. Earnings from POPS commercialization were reinvested in the company, which enabled Handix Scientific to grow from two people in 2015 to 12 full-time employees in 2021. “Currently, Handix Scientific is a very vibrant research and development company with seven Ph.D. graduates employed and close to 10 SBIR grants. We are developing several new products with federal funding support,” explained Chen. Handix Scientific has sold over 200 POPS units around the world, to date, with customers in China, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, United Kingdom, and the United States. Most of the demand for POPS comes from the research field, with scientists as the end users. The NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory is, in fact, the company’s biggest customer with 54 POPS units ordered so far and 28 more expected. Gao explained that this is the ultimate sign of success for a technology transfer. NOAA Labs and scientists are adept at developing new technologies, but they are not equipped to mass produce them.  Transferring the technology to a private company frees up the scientists to work on the science and enables a private company to refine and mass produce the NOAA design.  The company makes money and NOAA is able to procure a complete device at a lower per unit cost. Furthermore, the company expects POPS demand to increase as they are actively exploring how to break into new markets related to ambient and indoor air quality monitoring. To learn more about POPS, please view Dr. Gao’s presentation for the NOAA Innovators Series and explore related scientific publications and NOAA CSL field projects here. Media Contact: Suzi Webster,

Lionfish gather around purse trap deployed under the ocean

NOAA Awarded U.S. Patent for Innovative Lionfish Trap

Story originally published in April, 2021. Device could help protect threatened ecosystems and aid fishing communities The Challenge Over the last 20 years, invasive lionfish populations have dramatically increased throughout the western Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish have already caused a decline in native species that have significant ecological, cultural, and commercial value. Further impacts on coral reefs and other important ecosystems are anticipated, but not yet fully understood. Fortunately, as the threat of lionfish has intensified, so too have the levels of awareness and concern among not just scientists and fishers, but among members of the public. In recent years, state-sponsored lionfish fishing derbies have incentivized divers to remove lionfish from coastal waters, and the growing demand for this tasty and widely-promoted sustainable seafood has surpassed the supply. Although spearfishing has proven to be an effective approach for managing populations in shallow areas, lionfish remain uncontrolled in deeper waters, where they continue to threaten fragile ecosystems (and evade dinner plates). Therefore, there is a demonstrated need and resounding demand for effective, non-destructive ways to capture lionfish that linger beyond recreational scuba depths. Innovative Solution NOAA’s recently-patented lionfish trap could be a solution that offers both ecological and commercial benefits. The trap is shaped like a change purse and is constructed primarily out of a hinged steel frame, attached netting, and a centrally-located vertical panel called a “fish attraction device.” Once deployed from the surface, the lionfish trap descends vertically through the water until it hits the bottom, where two curved extensions cause the jaws to spring open and lay flat on the bottom. The fish attraction device is then revealed, drawing lionfish towards the center of the six-foot diameter net. Later, the trap can be recovered by pulling on a surface line, which closes the trap’s hinged jaws and captures the fish within the ring of netting. This innovative technology was designed with specific operational and conservation-related goals in mind, and as a result, has several benefits over conventional fish traps. For example, the lionfish trap’s open non-containment design prevents “ghost fishing,” which is when gear “continues to fish” after being lost or abandoned. The lack of bait in the trap minimizes by-catch, or the capture of unwanted fish. Furthermore, the trap causes minimal damage to the ocean floor, is easily transportable on fishing boats due to its flat design, and is relatively simple to construct, deploy, and retrieve. Pathway to Patent The lionfish trap was invented by Dr. Steve Gittings, who serves as the Chief Scientist of NOAA’s National Marine Sanctuary Program. Gittings first had the idea for the trap in 2014, after attending a colleague’s presentation about modifying lobster traps so they could be used for deep-water lionfish capture. In the presentation photos, Gittings noticed that lionfish were present, but far more were hovering around the trap than inside it, and that inspired the idea to design a trap that would take advantage of lionfishes’ tendency to aggregate around vertical structures. “It started in my garage as a PVC cube,” said Gittings, who describes himself as a “Garagineer”. Over the next couple of years, the invention progressed through several phases of design and testing, during which the trap was modified to be less bulky, easier to deploy, and more enticing to lionfish. Throughout the process, Gittings engaged recreational and commercial fishermen from numerous places, including Florida, North Carolina, Aruba, Mexico, and Belize. Incorporating the input and expertise of these partners allowed Gittings to improve the lionfish trap so that it meets everyone’s needs. In addition to NOAA, much of the testing of the trap prototypes was supported by donations and funds from Lionfish University, ReefSave, and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, and involved numerous volunteers and graduate students. The patent for Gittings’ trap, formally known as the “Apparatus for Harvesting Lionfish,” was filed in April 2018 and issued in February 2021. The Role of Technology Transfer Initially, Gittings did not consider patenting the trap. He explained, “My interest in developing these traps, as a civil servant, was to keep it as open-source as possible, so that anybody can use these to not only help support their fishermen, but to protect ecosystems around the Caribbean.” Gittings reached out to NOAA’s Technology Partnerships Office (TPO) after a colleague recommended that he speak with someone about potentially patenting the trap. TPO is NOAA’s research-to-commercialization office. Among other functions, TPO helps NOAA inventors patent their scientific and technological innovations and transfer them into the commercial marketplace, where they can more broadly impact ecosystems, communities, and economies. After speaking with TPO’s Technology Transfer Program Manager, as well as a representative from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) General Counsel Office, Gittings said he realized the best way to continue testing and improving the trap so that he could accomplish his goals was to “get control over the trap through patenting so that nobody else could stop us.” Gittings expressed gratitude for the support he received during the process of filing for the patent. “They interpreted everything I told them, going through every detail of the trap, and then put them on paper in language that the Patent Office understands. It was absolutely essential to have them do that work.” Looking Ahead Gittings’ long-term vision for the lionfish traps, should they prove to be an effective conservation method, is for fishers to use the traps outside of their primary fishing season. In using these lionfish traps, he said, “The fishermen would be supplementing their income and doing conservation at the same time.” Gittings added that a supplemental fishery targeting lionfish could also reduce the pressure on native species, such as snapper and grouper, which are overfished in some areas. And commercial use of the trap would provide an environmentally-friendly and reliable harvest for the seafood industry and its hungry customers. If the lionfish trap is successful, it will serve as another example of how technology transfer at NOAA contributes to realizing the agency’s guiding vision of healthy and resilient ecosystems, communities, and economies. The next step is to determine whether the traps are effective for controlling lionfish populations in deep water habitats. The prototypes were tested at depths of about 100 feet, but lionfish can be very abundant down to several hundred feet below the surface. In October 2020, the Reef Environmental Education Foundation (REEF) received a NOAA Saltonstall-Kennedy Competitive Grant to pursue this research and commercialization testing. REEF plans to collaborate with members of the Florida Keys lobster fishing community to test and improve various aspects of trap design, deployment, and long-term effectiveness. graphical threat detection matrix.

New technology uses NOAA data to provide faster disaster warnings applies artificial intelligence to NOAA satellite imagery to detect natural disasters, starting with wildfires Story originally published on Environmental News Network In 2017, as Kian Mirshahi watched wildfires rage across his home state of California, he wondered if there might be a way to get real-time information to first responders and citizens to help coordinate actions on the ground. More specifically, he wondered if Artificial Intelligence, or AI, might provide a key to faster decision-making. Fortunately, NOAA had recently rolled out two major developments, which provided the fuel for Mirshahi’s innovative drive. In 2016 and 2018, NOAA launched two new powerful geostationary satellites, GOES 16 and 17, which for the first time provided high-definition color imagery of the entire United States. At the same time, NOAA also kicked off a series of innovative Cooperative Research and Development Agreements with the major Cloud Service providers in the United States to provide easy access to NOAA data, especially GOES data. These agreements have since transitioned to an operational activity known as the NOAA Big Data Program (BDP). The BDP provided the general public the ability to access and analyze near real-time data feeds from GOES and other sources, without the need for a satellite dish and a supercomputer. This low-cost access to near real-time data, together with the powerful computing resources and advanced AI technology available on the Cloud Service Providers’ platforms, has opened the doors for small startups and innovators to make big impacts in NOAA’s mission areas. Mirshahi and his company, Mayday ai, are one of the early adopters in this new big data world. From Idea to Action Mirshahi founded his company,, in May 2018 with the mission to help save lives, reduce costs and impacts of disasters, and protect the environment. Using multiple resources, including satellites, traffic cameras and social media, the company has developed a cloud-based platform which can provide centralized early warning and dispatch for first responders and emergency managers combating high-impact events, such as wildfires. “We believe our platform can improve the flow of critical information between first responders and to the public, which traditionally has been impeded due to the fragmented nature of the disaster management communications,” Mirshahi said. “At the same time, we believe our platform can directly involve people at the community level in order to build disaster resiliency.” Little did Mirshahi know, 2020 would prove to be a true trial-by-fire year for his new company. Into the Fire: 2020 Proof of Concept The 2020 fire season has been unprecedented in California, Oregon, and beyond, which has put Mirshahi’s concept quickly to the test and has provided multiple opportunities to evaluate and fine tune his early-warning technology. has been training its analysis engine using Machine Learning to see through partial clouds, which has enabled to detect a high proportion of wildfire events up to 15 minutes after starting and well in advance of 911 calls reporting the incidents. has also enhanced its partial cloud detection technology to include lighting mapping every 10 minutes. This additional capability allowed to quickly identify lightning-caused fires. This is particularly powerful in a year where records are being broken with dry lightning causing wildfires in areas with ongoing drought conditions. “Today we are seeing wildfire events as early as four hours ahead of 911 calls, from 22,000 miles above sea level,” said Mirshahi. Ultimately, we hope to work with all stakeholders locally, nationally, and globally to prevent these events from causing so much damage to lives and livelihoods.” Supporting Innovation The NOAA Big Data Program is just one part of NOAA’s newly-developed Cloud and Data strategies. With the volume and velocity of NOAA’s data expected to increase exponentially with the advent of new observing systems and increasing data-collection capabilities, these strategies will allow the agency to support this growth. “Had NOAA not given us a chance to get access to real time data for our initial hypothesis testing, we simply wouldn’t have been able to start this project” said Mirshahi. “As we build a platform for community-level disaster management, NOAA and its big data efforts continue to be integral to our business.” The NOAA Technology Partnerships Office is a key link for increasing the impact of the public’s investments in NOAA’s science and engineering. Through a portfolio of Cooperative Research and Development Agreements, which enable NOAA scientists and engineers to work closely with their counterparts in the private sector, and seed funds provided to small businesses through the Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), NOAA is supporting innovation, the U.S. economy, and our critical mission goals. “Aligning NOAA’s capabilities with the constantly evolving needs of our stakeholders requires both collaboration and partnerships to deliver data and services in a way that stakeholders expect to consume them,” said Neil Jacobs, Ph.D., acting NOAA administrator. “Creative partnerships with commercial cloud providers set NOAA apart from others in making more of its data publicly accessible.” NOAA’s vast data sets are a fantastic resource, but without interpretation and application to the needs of the public, they are just large sets of numbers. While NOAA provides a wide range of products and services to the public using these data, the agency will continue to seek out innovators like Mirshahi and to add even more value and to help us achieve our mission.