Month: February 2022

S Curved Time of Flight Chamber

S-Curve Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer

US Patents 9,761,431 and 10,438,788 – Exclusive and Non-Exclusive Patent Licenses Available Time-of‐flight mass spectrometers are commonly used in analytical chemistry and many other applications. They contain a region where ions travel toward a detector. NOAA scientists have developed a new geometry that has improved performance over existing designs. The new innovation is to use two successive sectors, with the second one reversed, in a geometry resembling an “s”. The result is that the output ion beam is parallel to the input ion beam and that the entire geometry folds into a very compact volume. A second benefit to the design is that certain higher-order aberrations cancel when the ion beam makes two identical but opposed turns (e.g. a right-hand turn followed by a left-hand turn). NOAA is seeking qualified licensees to manufacture and sell this patented device.  Interested companies should contact the NOAA TPO at noaa.t2@noaa.gov for more information.  Shaped Time of Flight Chamber. Machined prototype. Credit: NOAA

Mayday.ai graphical threat detection matrix.

New technology uses NOAA data to provide faster disaster warnings

Mayday.ai applies artificial intelligence to NOAA satellite imagery to detect natural disasters, starting with wildfires In 2017, as Kian Mirshahi watched wildfires rage across his home state of California, he wondered if there might be a way to get real-time information to first responders and citizens to help coordinate actions on the ground. More specifically, he wondered if Artificial Intelligence, or AI, might provide a key to faster decision-making. Fortunately, NOAA had recently rolled out two major developments, which provided the fuel for Mirshahi’s innovative drive. In 2016 and 2018, NOAA launched two new powerful geostationary satellites, GOES 16 and 17, which for the first time provided high-definition color imagery of the entire United States. At the same time, NOAA also kicked off a series of innovative Cooperative Research and Development Agreements with the major Cloud Service providers in the United States to provide easy access to NOAA data, especially GOES data. These agreements have since transitioned to an operational activity known as the NOAA Big Data Program (BDP). The BDP provided the general public the ability to access and analyze near real-time data feeds from GOES and other sources, without the need for a satellite dish and a supercomputer. This low-cost access to near real-time data, together with the powerful computing resources and advanced AI technology available on the Cloud Service Providers’ platforms, has opened the doors for small startups and innovators to make big impacts in NOAA’s mission areas. Mirshahi and his company, Mayday ai, are one of the early adopters in this new big data world. From Idea to Action Mirshahi founded his company, Mayday.ai, in May 2018 with the mission to help save lives, reduce costs and impacts of disasters, and protect the environment. Using multiple resources, including satellites, traffic cameras and social media, the company has developed a cloud-based platform which can provide centralized early warning and dispatch for first responders and emergency managers combating high-impact events, such as wildfires. “We believe our platform can improve the flow of critical information between first responders and to the public, which traditionally has been impeded due to the fragmented nature of the disaster management communications,” Mirshahi said. “At the same time, we believe our platform can directly involve people at the community level in order to build disaster resiliency.” Little did Mirshahi know, 2020 would prove to be a true trial-by-fire year for his new company. Into the Fire: 2020 Proof of Concept The 2020 fire season has been unprecedented in California, Oregon, and beyond, which has put Mirshahi’s concept quickly to the test and has provided multiple opportunities to evaluate and fine tune his early-warning technology. Mayday.ai has been training its analysis engine using Machine Learning to see through partial clouds, which has enabled Mayday.ai to detect a high proportion of wildfire events up to 15 minutes after starting and well in advance of 911 calls reporting the incidents. Mayday.ai has also enhanced its partial cloud detection technology to include lighting mapping every 10 minutes. This additional capability allowed Mayday.ai to quickly identify lightning-caused fires. This is particularly powerful in a year where records are being broken with dry lightning causing wildfires in areas with ongoing drought conditions. “Today we are seeing wildfire events as early as four hours ahead of 911 calls, from 22,000 miles above sea level,” said Mirshahi. Ultimately, we hope to work with all stakeholders locally, nationally, and globally to prevent these events from causing so much damage to lives and livelihoods.” Supporting Innovation The NOAA Big Data Program is just one part of NOAA’s newly-developed Cloud and Data strategies. With the volume and velocity of NOAA’s data expected to increase exponentially with the advent of new observing systems and increasing data-collection capabilities, these strategies will allow the agency to support this growth. “Had NOAA not given us a chance to get access to real time data for our initial hypothesis testing, we simply wouldn’t have been able to start this project” said Mirshahi. “As we build a platform for community-level disaster management, NOAA and its big data efforts continue to be integral to our business.” The NOAA Technology Partnerships Office is a key link for increasing the impact of the public’s investments in NOAA’s science and engineering. Through a portfolio of Cooperative Research and Development Agreements, which enable NOAA scientists and engineers to work closely with their counterparts in the private sector, and seed funds provided to small businesses through the Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), NOAA is supporting innovation, the U.S. economy, and our critical mission goals. “Aligning NOAA’s capabilities with the constantly evolving needs of our stakeholders requires both collaboration and partnerships to deliver data and services in a way that stakeholders expect to consume them,” said Neil Jacobs, Ph.D., acting NOAA administrator. “Creative partnerships with commercial cloud providers set NOAA apart from others in making more of its data publicly accessible.” NOAA’s vast data sets are a fantastic resource, but without interpretation and application to the needs of the public, they are just large sets of numbers. While NOAA provides a wide range of products and services to the public using these data, the agency will continue to seek out innovators like Mirshahi and Mayday.ai to add even more value and to help us achieve our mission.

Diagram showing ship-based operations for UAS Swarms

Charles River Analytics Expands Drone Research to Support NOAA Environmental Missions

NOAA SBIR Awardee to explore how unmanned aerial systems can further the agency’s unique environmental stewardship goals. Charles River Analytics was recently awarded its first two Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to explore how unmanned aerial systems can further the agency’s unique environmental stewardship goals.

Lionfish gather around purse trap deployed under the ocean

NOAA Awarded U.S. Patent for Innovative Lionfish Trap

Story originally published in April, 2021. Device could help protect threatened ecosystems and aid fishing communities The Challenge Over the last 20 years, invasive lionfish populations have dramatically increased throughout the western Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish have already caused a decline in native species that have significant ecological, cultural, and commercial value. Further impacts on coral reefs and other important ecosystems are anticipated, but not yet fully understood. Fortunately, as the threat of lionfish has intensified, so too have the levels of awareness and concern among not just scientists and fishers, but among members of the public. In recent years, state-sponsored lionfish fishing derbies have incentivized divers to remove lionfish from coastal waters, and the growing demand for this tasty and widely-promoted sustainable seafood has surpassed the supply. Although spearfishing has proven to be an effective approach for managing populations in shallow areas, lionfish remain uncontrolled in deeper waters, where they continue to threaten fragile ecosystems (and evade dinner plates). Therefore, there is a demonstrated need and resounding demand for effective, non-destructive ways to capture lionfish that linger beyond recreational scuba depths. Innovative Solution NOAA’s recently-patented lionfish trap could be a solution that offers both ecological and commercial benefits. The trap is shaped like a change purse and is constructed primarily out of a hinged steel frame, attached netting, and a centrally-located vertical panel called a “fish attraction device.” Once deployed from the surface, the lionfish trap descends vertically through the water until it hits the bottom, where two curved extensions cause the jaws to spring open and lay flat on the bottom. The fish attraction device is then revealed, drawing lionfish towards the center of the six-foot diameter net. Later, the trap can be recovered by pulling on a surface line, which closes the trap’s hinged jaws and captures the fish within the ring of netting. This innovative technology was designed with specific operational and conservation-related goals in mind, and as a result, has several benefits over conventional fish traps. For example, the lionfish trap’s open non-containment design prevents “ghost fishing,” which is when gear “continues to fish” after being lost or abandoned. The lack of bait in the trap minimizes by-catch, or the capture of unwanted fish. Furthermore, the trap causes minimal damage to the ocean floor, is easily transportable on fishing boats due to its flat design, and is relatively simple to construct, deploy, and retrieve. Pathway to Patent The lionfish trap was invented by Dr. Steve Gittings, who serves as the Chief Scientist of NOAA’s National Marine Sanctuary Program. Gittings first had the idea for the trap in 2014, after attending a colleague’s presentation about modifying lobster traps so they could be used for deep-water lionfish capture. In the presentation photos, Gittings noticed that lionfish were present, but far more were hovering around the trap than inside it, and that inspired the idea to design a trap that would take advantage of lionfishes’ tendency to aggregate around vertical structures. “It started in my garage as a PVC cube,” said Gittings, who describes himself as a “Garagineer”. Over the next couple of years, the invention progressed through several phases of design and testing, during which the trap was modified to be less bulky, easier to deploy, and more enticing to lionfish. Throughout the process, Gittings engaged recreational and commercial fishermen from numerous places, including Florida, North Carolina, Aruba, Mexico, and Belize. Incorporating the input and expertise of these partners allowed Gittings to improve the lionfish trap so that it meets everyone’s needs. In addition to NOAA, much of the testing of the trap prototypes was supported by donations and funds from Lionfish University, ReefSave, and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, and involved numerous volunteers and graduate students. The patent for Gittings’ trap, formally known as the “Apparatus for Harvesting Lionfish,” was filed in April 2018 and issued in February 2021. The Role of Technology Transfer Initially, Gittings did not consider patenting the trap. He explained, “My interest in developing these traps, as a civil servant, was to keep it as open-source as possible, so that anybody can use these to not only help support their fishermen, but to protect ecosystems around the Caribbean.” Gittings reached out to NOAA’s Technology Partnerships Office (TPO) after a colleague recommended that he speak with someone about potentially patenting the trap. TPO is NOAA’s research-to-commercialization office. Among other functions, TPO helps NOAA inventors patent their scientific and technological innovations and transfer them into the commercial marketplace, where they can more broadly impact ecosystems, communities, and economies. After speaking with TPO’s Technology Transfer Program Manager, as well as a representative from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) General Counsel Office, Gittings said he realized the best way to continue testing and improving the trap so that he could accomplish his goals was to “get control over the trap through patenting so that nobody else could stop us.” Gittings expressed gratitude for the support he received during the process of filing for the patent. “They interpreted everything I told them, going through every detail of the trap, and then put them on paper in language that the Patent Office understands. It was absolutely essential to have them do that work.” Looking Ahead Gittings’ long-term vision for the lionfish traps, should they prove to be an effective conservation method, is for fishers to use the traps outside of their primary fishing season. In using these lionfish traps, he said, “The fishermen would be supplementing their income and doing conservation at the same time.” Gittings added that a supplemental fishery targeting lionfish could also reduce the pressure on native species, such as snapper and grouper, which are overfished in some areas. And commercial use of the trap would provide an environmentally-friendly and reliable harvest for the seafood industry and its hungry customers. If the lionfish trap is successful, it will serve as another example of how technology transfer at NOAA contributes to realizing the agency’s guiding vision of healthy and resilient ecosystems, communities, and economies. The next step is to determine whether the traps are effective for controlling lionfish populations in deep water habitats. The prototypes were tested at depths of about 100 feet, but lionfish can be very abundant down to several hundred feet below the surface. In October 2020, the Reef Environmental Education Foundation (REEF) received a NOAA Saltonstall-Kennedy Competitive Grant to pursue this research and commercialization testing. REEF plans to collaborate with members of the Florida Keys lobster fishing community to test and improve various aspects of trap design, deployment, and long-term effectiveness.

Sea Grant is helping Swift Engineering deploy and test Kelp - a remote, self-powered buoy for water quality monitoring.

Small business partnership leads to big advances in water quality monitoring

Sea Grant is partnering with Swift Engineering on the development of a buoy like none before. Meet Kelp – a remote, self-powered buoy for water quality monitoring. Joined through NOAA’s Small Business Innovation Research Program, Sea Grant is helping Swift Engineering deploy and test Kelp in different environments for a variety of purposes. Check out this multimedia feature to learn more about Sea Grant and Swift’s partnership on Kelp.